What is Coarctation of the Aorta?
Coarctation of the aorta is a birth defect in which the “aorta” means a tube that carries oxygen that is not normal. It is confined or narrower than usual. If it is severe and not treated then it can cause serious problems to the baby. Infants with this defect have restricted blood flow in the left ventricle of the heart. In this article you’ll get to know almost everything about coarctation of aorta surgery using epigastric surgery.
Coarctation of aorta are of two types:
Product Coarctation of the Aorta
This type of coarctation of aorta happens in infants after birth it can be diagnosed and then treated afterward.
Post ductal Coarctation of the Aorta
This type of coarctation of aorta happens in adults in this stage the symptoms of this disorder are clearly shown so it is easy to diagnose this.
Causes of Coarctation
Many people consider that this defect comes from the mother when she comes in contact with adverse environmental factors or stress or any genetic effect. But it is not like that this defect occurs mostly when the baby’s aorta doesn’t shape properly during the development during pregnancy. But in many cases the cause of this defect in most babies is unspecified
Factors of Risk
Boys are more likely than girls to be born with aortic coarctation. Other risk factors include genetic disorders like Turner syndrome, certain maternal behaviors during pregnancy, and maternal exposure to environmental hazards while pregnant. Usually its treatment is surgery (coarctation of aorta surgery using epigastric surgery).
READ MORE: Early Signs of Pregnancy
The early symptoms in infants with severe conditions are:
- uneasy breathing
- Pale skin
- A lot of Sweat
- Poor growth
Symptoms after Infancy Period
- Chest pain
- Nose bleeding
- Leg cramping
- High blood pressure
- Cold feet
- Muscle weakness
Coarctation is normally diagnosed after the birth of the baby. It generally depends upon the symptoms whether they are mild or severe. In the groin or leg region, the pulse becomes weaker than in arms or any other body part besides this a murmuring sound of the heart can be heard” it is an abnormal sound caused by irregular flow. It can be heard by a stethoscope.
Above all most “echocardiograms” can be used to detect the coarctation of the aorta. An echocardiogram is the ultrasound of the heart with the blood flow rate and working of the heart. By using pulse oximetry coarctation of the aorta can be detected before it shows any symptoms
- Medical background
- Physical examination
- MRI, CT, and echocardiogram
- Catheterization of the heart
Quick treatment to prevent complications is necessary. If it is not treated on time it may become severe and infants with this defect may have heart failure or even die. Other than this prolonged high blood pressure can be complicated in this case.
Other complications of coarctation are:
- Brain hemorrhage
- Enlargement of the aorta wall
- Aortic rupture
Once the defect is diagnosed it is necessary to widen the narrowed artery. It can be treated by surgery or balloon angioplasty. Balloon angioplasty is a procedure in which a thin flexible tube, called a catheter, is inserted into a blood vessel and directed to the aorta.
When the catheter reaches the aorta’s narrow section, a balloon at the tip is inflated to expand the blood flow. A stent procedure can also be used to widen the narrowed artery.
Another treatment include coarctation of aorta surgery using epigastric surgery.
What are the signs and symptoms of coarctation of aorta in children?
Aortic coarctation is a narrowing (constriction) of a section of the body’s main artery (aorta).In addition to send blood through the aorta and into the rest of the body, the heart must pump more forcefully. The aorta is the body’s largest artery. It is responsible for transporting oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
How do you fix coarctation of the aorta?
Aortic coarctation can be repaired surgically or through other means. Removing the narrow section and reconnecting the two ends of the aorta is one of the most common ways to repair a coarctation. Doctors may perform a balloon dilation in some cases (also called balloon angioplasty) or coarctation of aorta surgery using epigastric surgery.
How long can you live with coarctation?
Individuals with aortic coarctation have historically had poor long-term outcomes, with a 35-year average life expectancy. According to natural history studies, 90% of people die before the age of 50.
How many babies are born with coarctation of the aorta?
This means that approximately 2,200 babies are born in the United States each year with aortic coarctation. In other words, approximately 1 in every 1,800 babies born in the United States each year is born with aortic coarctation.
Which syndrome is associated with coarctation of aorta?
The most common cardiac defect associated with Turner syndrome is aortic coarctation.
Which clinical finding may be present in an older child with coarctation of the aorta?
Coarctation is frequently suspected in these elderly patients as a result of a heart murmur or high blood pressure. When a doctor is unable to feel pulses in a child’s legs, coarctation is suspected. High blood pressure in the arms (but not in the legs) is possible. Typically, a heart murmur is present.
Unfortunately, it can not be prevented, though it can be detected early. However, some signs that can lead to a coarctation, have been linked to pathologies bicuspid aortic valve, and other family heart conditions.